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The 7 Best Reviewed Omega-3 Supplements 2019

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Fish oil pills — and other kind of Omega-3 supplements, which we’ll discuss below — are among of the toughest supplements to buy. They’ve been linked to scores of benefits, everything from lower inflammation to better mental health, but figuring out the right product for your needs is trickier than ever. You have to decide if you even want your Omega-3s to come from fish, which is why we’ve included three non-fish varieties in our list, but you also need to take into account the dosage, the ratio of fats, the sourcing … it’s a headache. We know.

That’s why we’ve looked at dozens of products to take the guess work out of the process. Take a look at our pickings below, which are currently sitting in the fridge at BarBend HQ — we tried’ em all.

Best Omega-3 Supplements Benefits of Omega-3s Ideal Dosage Omega-3 vs Omega-6 How We Choose the Best Best Food Sources of Omega-3 Do Vegan Omega-3s Work ? Does Fish Oil Go Bad ?

Best Overall

Nutrigold Triple Strength Omega-3 Fish Oil

Nutrigold Triple Strength Omega-3 Fish Oil

Nutrigold Triple Strength Omega-3 Fish Oil

Nutrigold delivers more Omega 3 than any other reputable product we looked at, plus it has certifications from The International Fish Oil Standards, the Marine Stewardship Council, and it fulfils criteria from the World Health Organization, GOED, and Consumerlabs.

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Doesn’t expire

Most Responsibly Sourced

Sports Research Triple Strength Omega-3 Fish Oil

Sports Research Triple Strength Omega-3 Fish Oil

Sports Research Triple Strength Omega-3 Fish Oil

Sports Research has more certifications than we’ve ever seen: 5 starrings from the the International Fish Oil Standards, certified by the Marine Stewardship Council, certified by NSF International, and its oxidation is tested to ensure freshness.

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Doesn’t expire

Best for Pescetarians

WHC UnoCardio x2

WHC UnoCardio x2

WHC UnoCardio x2

Made with fish gelatin, WHC’s offering has natural orange flavor to help with fishy burps, they have very high purity and label accuracy ratings from Labdoor, and they’re certified by Friend of the Sea for sustainability.

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Doesn’t expire

Best Krill Oil

Zenwise Health Omega-3 Krill Oil

Zenwise Health Omega-3 Krill Oil

Zenwise Health Omega-3 Krill Oil

Certified by the Marine Stewardship Council and built with krill all the way from Antarctica, Zenwise has a high concentration of nutrients and the natural antioxidants help to prevent spoilage.

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Doesn’t expire

Best Vegan

NuTru Vegan Omega-3

NuTru Vegan Omega-3

NuTru Vegan Omega-3

Unlike many plant-based Omega-3 products, NuTru’s offering offer both EPA and DHA, plus they’re grown sustainably and have the highest ranking from third party tester Labdoor.

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Doesn’t expire

Best Green Lipped Mussel

Swanson Green Lipped Mussel

Swanson Green Lipped Mussel

Swanson Green Lipped Mussel

Third party tested, freeze dried onsite to preserve freshness and information sources of the rare Omega-3 called eicosapentaenoic acid, Swanson’s Green Lipped Mussel Oil topped this category of Omega-3.

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Doesn’t expire

Best for No Fishy Burps

Athletic Greens Omega 3

Athletic Greens Omega 3

Athletic Greens Omega 3

No fishy burpings and made from wild catch Icelandic fish, Athletic Greens’s Omega 3 is more sustainable and user friendly than some competitors.

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Doesn’t expire

2019 Best Omega-3 Supplements

Best Overall Nutrigold Triple Strength Omega-3 Fish Oil

Nutrigold Triple Strength Omega-3 Fish Oil

Nutrigold Triple Strength Omega-3 Fish Oil

Nutrigold Triple Strength Omega-3 Fish Oil

Nutrigold delivers more Omega 3 than any other reputable product we looked at, plus it has certifications from The International Fish Oil Standards, the Marine Stewardship Council, and it satisfies standards from the World Health Organization, GOED, and Consumerlabs.

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Nutrigold Triple Strength Omega-3 Fish Oil Highlights

Potent serving Certified by IFOS and Marine Stewardship Council Distilled to remove contaminants

Nutrigold Triple Strength Omega-3 Fish Oil is our pick for the best fish oil on the market. For starters, it merely gives you more Omega-3: 2.6 grams per serving, considerably more than any of the other entries on our list.

Image result for nutrigold omega 3

But it ticks just about every other box you were able to ask for in one of these products. Sourced from wild Alaskan salmon, it’s not just 5-star certified from The International Fish Oil Standards( tm)( IFOS ), known for having the most stringent quality controls for purity, potency, and freshness, but it’s also certified sustainable from the Marine Stewardship Council, which is heavily invested in terminate overfishing and maintaining fish petroleum sustainable. It also fulfils standards from the World Health Organization, the Global Organization for EPA and DHA Omega-3( GOED ), and Consumerlabs.

This product is molecularly distilled to remove heavy metals and other contaminants and it’s third party verified to be totally free from allergens like gluten, milk, peanut, shellfish, and soy.

Most Responsibly Sourced Sports Research Triple Strength Omega-3 Fish Oil

Sports Research Triple Strength Omega-3 Fish Oil

Sports Research Triple Strength Omega-3 Fish Oil

Sports Research Triple Strength Omega-3 Fish Oil

Sports Research has more certifications than we’ve ever seen: 5 starrings from the the International Fish Oil Standards, certified by the Marine Stewardship Council, certified by NSF International, and its oxidation is tested to ensure freshness.

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Sports Research Triple Strength Omega-3 Fish Oil Highlights

Certified by IFOS, Marine Stewardship Council, and NSF International Sourced from wild Alaskan pollock Very fresh

Sports Research Triple Strength Omega-3 Fish Oil get our referendum. It’s the first fish oil to get certifications from the International Fish Oil Standards, the Marine Stewardship Council, and NSF International, and the fish is attained with AlaskOmega( r ), petroleum sourced from wild Alaskan pollock from the Bering Sea.

There are a few other controls that some consumers may like, such as the fact that it’s Igen tested to make sure there are no genetically modified organisms, and it’s remarkably fresh. The fish oil is extracted from the pollock’s trimmings immediately after catch and the final product never outstrips a TOTOX( Total Oxidation) value of 5 out of 26.( That’s from GOED’s standards .)

Best for Pescetarians WHC UnoCardio

WHC UnoCardio x2

WHC UnoCardio x2

WHC UnoCardio x2

Made with fish gelatin, WHC’s offering has natural orange flavor to help with fishy burps, they have very high purity and label accuracy ratings from Labdoor, and they’re certified by Friend of the Sea for sustainability.

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WHC UnoCardio x2 Highlights

Capsules made from fish gelatin Certified by Friend of the Sea High purity rating from Labdoor

WHC’s UnoCardio is the best fish oil for pescetarians. Made with fish gelatin, it has a remarkably big serving of 1.27 grams of Omega-3s per serving and it contains natural orange flavor to help minimize fishy burps.

The main draw here is the serving size, but this Belgian company is also certified by Friend of the Sea for their sustainable agriculture practices and the product has a remarkably high rating from third party testing site Labdoor for its purity and label accuracy.

Best Krill Oil Zenwise Health Omega-3 Krill Oil

Zenwise Health Omega-3 Krill Oil

Zenwise Health Omega-3 Krill Oil

Zenwise Health Omega-3 Krill Oil

Certified by the Marine Stewardship Council and attained with krill all the way from Antarctica, Zenwise has a high concentration of nutrients and the natural antioxidants help to prevent spoilage.

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Zenwise Health Omega-3 Krill Oil Highlights

Certified by Marine Stewardship Council High concentration of nutrients Natural antioxidants to protect against spoilage

Zenwise Health’s Omega-3 Krill Oil is our favorite on the market. Made from MSC-certified sustainable krill all the way from Antarctica, it stands out in the market by utilizing SuperbaBoost krill oil, which is made from FlexiTech( tm) fractionating processing that helps to ensure a high concentration of essential nutrients and compounds.

Krill oil doesn’t make fishy burpings, it contains more phospholipids( that may help the nutrients to absorb) and it contains astaxanthin, a natural( and bright red) antioxidant that helps protect the oil from oxidation.

Best Vegan Nutru Vegan Omega-3

NuTru Vegan Omega-3

NuTru Vegan Omega-3

NuTru Vegan Omega-3

Unlike many plant-based Omega-3 products, NuTru’s offering provides both EPA and DHA, plus they’re grown sustainably and have the highest ranking from third party tester Labdoor.

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NuTru Vegan Omega-3 Highlights

Contains both EPA and DHA Made with sustainably grown microalgae High ranking from Labdoor

NuTru Vegan Omega-3 is our favorite plant-based Omega-3 supplement. Fish ultimately their Omega-3s from algae, the only source of vegan EPA and DHA.

Most vegan Omega-3 supplements merely contain DHA, but NuTru contains both EPA and DHA, helping it to stand out in the crowded market.

The fact that it’s vegan also means there’s no risk of contamination from mercury, and they’re grown on a sustainable basis to minimize any negative effects on the eco system. Ultimately, it has the highest ranking on Labdoor, a well considered third party testing site that ensures accuracy and purity of ingredients.

Best Green Lipped Mussel Swanson Green Lipped Mussel

Swanson Green Lipped Mussel

Swanson Green Lipped Mussel

Swanson Green Lipped Mussel

Third party tested, freeze dried onsite to preserve freshness and a source of the rare Omega-3 called eicosapentaenoic acid, Swanson’s Green Lipped Mussel Oil topped this category of Omega-3.

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Swanson Green Lipped Mussel Highlights

Sustainably grown Delivers the Omega-3 fatty acid ETA Freeze fried on site for freshness

Swanson Green Lipped Mussel Oil is our favorite pick. Many favor green lipped mussel oil because it’s seen as more sustainable and it usually contains a rare kind of Omega-3 called eicosapentaenoic acid or ETA, which may help with inflammation( 1 ).

Swanson’s pills contain the whole animal ground up into powder and freeze dried on site, which helps to preserve freshness, and they’re third party tested and stimulated in accordance with FDA and FTC guidelines. Note that we’re also a big fan of the product from New Zealand Pure Health, but it’s a little tricky to get shipped to the US.

Best for No Fishy Burps Athletic Greens Premium Omega 3

Athletic Greens Omega 3

Athletic Greens Omega 3

Athletic Greens Omega 3

No fishy burps and made from wild capture Icelandic fish, Athletic Greens’s Omega 3 is more sustainable and user friendly than some competitors.

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Athletic Greens Omega 3 Highlights

Certified by Friend of the Sea So fresh that there are no fishy burpings Ultra distilled to remove contaminants

Athletic Greens’ Premium Omega 3 is our pick for those who don’t like fishy burps. The company is best known for their green superfood powder but they’ve branched out into other supplements, with their fish oil really catching our eye.

Besides adding some flavoring, the trick to minimizing fishy burps is freshness. Many brands sit in warehouses and on store shelves for months if not years, but Athletic Greens’ is brought from the ocean to the consumer as quickly as possible and we can attest ourselves that we had no fishy burps.

It’s also ultra distilled for purity and it’s certified by Friend of the Sea, an organization dedicated to ensuring sustainable aquaculture.

Why Take Omega-3 Supplements?

A wide variety of effects have been ascribed to Omega-3 fatty acids, specifically eicosapentaenoic acid( EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid( DHA ).

Inflammation

Taking in plenty of EPA and DHA appears to be a way to help reduce inflammation. Some research suggests that fish petroleum supplements can be valuable for reducing joint pain associated with inflammatory conditions like arthritis, and one analyze published in The Journal of the American College of Nutrition even found that they took help to reduce( though not eliminate) the need for anti-inflammatory medications among people with inflammatory and autoimmune diseases .( 2 )( 3)

Managing inflammation isn’t just for people with chronic conditions, though. Chronic inflammation has been linked to everything from heart disease to diabetes to cancer, so reducing it where possible could be in everyone’s interest. Folks who work out a lot experience more inflammation than the average person and some research suggested that 1 to 2 grams of Omega-3s per day helped to” counteract exercise-induced rednes” following strength develop .( 4 )( 5)

inflammationTorwaistudio/ Shutterstock Mental Health

There’s decent evidence to suggest that maintaining your Omega-3s relatively high could help to reduce the risk of Alzheimer’s disease and improve cognition among those already suffering from some forms of cognitive impairment .( 6 )( 7)

Some contest these links — it’s a little less concrete than the anti-inflammation effects — but there’s even an argument to be made that the anti-inflammatory effects can play an important role in treating depression .( 8 )( 9) More research is needed, but fish petroleum, especially fish petroleum that’s over 60 percentage EPA, has been ensure to reduce both depression and anxiety in some research .( 10 )( 11)

Heart Health

Evidence is a little mixed, but we’ve seen more than a few analyzes have assured Omega-3s( especially DHA) to reduce triglycerides( 12 )( 13 )( 14 )( 15 ). Positive effects have also been insured on patients with high blood pressure, though it doesn’t seem to be as effective at lowering the pressure of folks with regular blood pressure .( 16 )( 17 )( 18 )( 19 )( 20) fish oil capsules

Dosage

There’s no official recommended intake, but the World Health Organization and the US Department of Health and Human Service suggest a minimum of 250 to 500 milligrams per day, though you should note many of these studies were employing two to four grams per day to achieve their effects.

Note though that your intake should also take into account your Omega-6 fatty acids. fries

Omega-3 Vs Omega-6

It’s important to note that it’s equally as important to keep your Omega-6 intake low as it is to keep your Omega-3. While the latter is usually found in naturally created fish and meat, the former is high in processed seed petroleums and fried foods, as well as more “natural” foods like chicken and nuts.

Of course, the average person feeds more processed and fried foods than they are able to which means that the ratio of Omega-3 to -6 is off balance. Research suggests that a 1:4 or even 1:2 ratio is ideal for reducing the risk of heart disease and some cancers, but the average person eats closer to 1:10 or even 1:25 in some studies .( 21)

Unless your diet is very Paleo and jam packed with fish, it’s smart to take Omega-3 supplements and reduce your intake of fried and processed food to help the process. Filet of salmon

How We Choose the Best

So how did we land on this list? Below are the criteria we used to make sure we’re landing on the cream( or petroleum) of the crop.

Dosage

Studies vary a lot in the dosages — one found that 14 grams of fish petroleum per day for five weeks helped improve some markers of rednes among post-menopausal women .( 22) But as mentioned, the closest thing to a recommendation we’ve got is 250 to 500 milligrams per day of a combination of EPA and DHA. Our favorite supplement delivered a solid 2.5 grams, but we didn’t penalize too harshly for lower amounts.

EPA/DHA Ratio

EPA is a little more closely linked with inflammation and DHA has a closer tie with mental health issues and they’re usually dosed equally, but we didn’t penalize if the dosages weren’t exactly the same. Some limited research suggests to go more heavy on the EPA if you’re after reducing rednes rather than emphasizing mental benefits but this isn’t concrete enough to recommend and in any case, predilections are too individual for us to prefer one ratio over another .( 23)

sardines

Third Party Testing

There are several third party testers and regulatory bodies that can be employed by the manufacturers of Omega-3 supplements.

The most popular is probably The International Fish Oil Standards( tm)( IFOSS ), who awarded five superstars to our Best Overall and Most Responsibly Sourced pickings. The Ontario-based organization focuses on three main categories: the label accuracy, or the amount of active ingredients claimed on the label; the presence of contaminants like mercury and radiation, which they state can outweigh the beneficial health effects of fish oil; and stability, or how quickly the product is likely to degrade. IFOS is the only organization that tests fish oil products by batch and lot number to make sure they each have the right components, don’t contain contaminants, and are stable and fresh for consumption.

The other organization you hear about the most often Marine Stewardship Council, which is more focused on sustainability. A global nonprofit organization, they work with fisheries, grocery store, eateries, and supplement companies to improve fishing practices, combat hoax, promote transparency, and help ensure that generations to come can enjoy seafood. Every fishery is independently assessed to figure out the impact on wild fish populations and they also track the furnish chain to make sure all of their certified fish petroleum can be traced back to an approved fishery.

fishing boatTomasz Kozal/ Shutterstock

Friend of the Sea also endorse some of the supplements we looked at. Their mission is broader than MSC, working not only with fish oil supplements but also shipping and cruise lines and whale watching companies. But the Italian organization’s mission is still focused on sustainability: a project of the World Sustainability Organization, they carry out yearly audits onsite by independent international certification bodies, and their requirements include waste and energy management, social accountability , no significant impact on the seabed, and not affecting animals deemed “overexploited” by the UN’s Food and Agricultural Organization.

Labdoor is another highly regarded company that emphasizes label accuracy. An approval from Labdoor is highly valued in all areas of nutritional supplements — the completely independent company purchases products off of retail shelves and online sites and then send samples to an FD-Aregistered laboratory for chemical analysis.

Sourcing

Particularly for the fisheries industry based Omega-3s, responsible sourcing can be a priority for some consumers. This is where the certifications from IFOSS, Marine Stewardship Council, and Friend of the Sea come into play.

Freshness

Nobody wants rancid fish oil. Besides following the guidelines we’ve described below, we gave extra points to products that freeze their product soon after harvesting, which helps to maintain freshness.

Additives

We’re not of the intellect that Omega-3 supplements should have only Omega-3s and nothing else at all. Some additives can be useful: rosemary or oregano extract, for example, appears to help inhibit their oxidation .( 24) Tocopherols also seem to help protect against contaminants .( 25)

We therefore prefer fish petroleums with ingredients like these, water, and glycerin( to maintain the shape of the capsules ).

mackerelYARUNIV Studio/ Shutterstock Best Food Sources of Omega-3

You’re unlikely to eat enough algae to get a good serving of Omega-3 — that’s why we tend to turn to fish, who eat enough of the stuff that it amasses in their fat.( Or they eat enough of the fish that eat the algae … or enough of the fisheries industry that eat enough of the fish that feed … you see what we mean .)

In a hundred grams, these are the animals that are highest in Omega-3 according to Nutritiondata.

Mackerel: 5,134 milligrams Salmon: 2,260 milligrams Anchovies: 2,113 milligrams Herring: 1,729 milligrams Sardines: 1,480 milligrams Oysters: 672 milligrams Halibut: 669 milligrams

Caviar is higher, with 6,789 milligrams per 100 grams, but few people are to be able to ingest that much caviar at once.

But what about vegan sources? walnuts

Do Vegan Omega-3s Work?

Omega-3s sources from algae are a good source EPA and DHA, which is why it’s the base of the vegan product we’ve recommended. But all the other plant-based foods that are frequently touted as good sources of Omega-3, such as chia, walnuts, and flaxseeds, are not.

Most vegan Omega-3s are alpha-linolenic acid, or ALA. The problem with ALA is that the body needs to convert it to EPA and DHA, and it’s estimated that about 90 percent of it is lost in the process .( 26) Plus, if you’re eating a lot of Omega-6( as we tend to do ), it appears to make it even harder for the body to make this conversion .( 27)

Basically, you need to consume ten times the amount of ALA to get roughly the same amount of EPA/ DHA. That said, really high quantities of ALA have been linked to an increase in risk of prostate cancer .( 28) It’s also been linked to lower dangers of heart disease and diabetes, but doubling down on ALA might be an iffy strategy .( 29)

fish skullGolmer/ Shutterstock Does Fish Oil Go Bad?

Fish oil expires. It’s animal fat, after all, and it can go rancid and lose its effectiveness. In fact, polyunsaturated fatty acids are highly prone to oxidative degeneration, according to a 2015 paper in Journal of Nutritional Science it’s one of the supplements that are the most prone to degradation .( 30) One analyze even looked at 171 supplements from 49 brands in Canada and found that 50 percentage outstripped limits for at least one measure of oxidation .( 31)

The risk of oxidation is affected by exposure to oxygen and light, temperature, antioxidant content, and the presence of water and heavy minerals. To minimize risks it’s smart to keep your fish petroleum in the fridge. The expiration date should be printed on your bottle, and while that date is meant to undershoot the expiration and take into account that many people might not store them well, it probably refers to when the gels will expire if left unopened.

Here some tips.

Buy them one month at a time so you’re not stockpiling older supplements. Once they’re open, start taking them every day. Check to ensure the oil is clear , not cloudy The coating should be springy , not soft If they smell bad, don’t take’ em.

best fish oil

Wrapping Up

It doesn’t matter if your priority is purity, the environmental issues, or staying plant-based, there’s an Omega-3 supplement for you. We’ve done the hard work of weighing the countless vying supplements on the market — pick one of the best and enjoy. Just remember to keep’ em in the fridge.

Reference

1. Koto T, et al. Eicosapentaenoic acid is anti-inflammatory in preventing choroidal neovascularization in mice. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2007 Sep; 48( 9 ): 4328 -3 4. 2. Maroon JC, et al. Omega-3 fatty acids( fish oil) as an anti-inflammatory: an alternative to nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory narcotics for discogenic pain. Surg Neurol. 2006 Apr; 65( 4 ): 326 -3 1. 3. Rajaei E, et al. The Effect of Omega-3 Fatty Acids in Patients With Active Rheumatoid Arthritis Receiving DMARDs Therapy: Double-Blind Randomized Controlled Trial. Glob J Health Sci. 2015 Nov 3; 8( 7 ): 18 -2 5. 4. Jouris KB, et al. The Effect of Omega-3 Fatty Acid Supplementation on the Inflammatory Response to eccentric strength workout. J Sports Sci Med. 2011 Sep 1; 10( 3 ): 432 -8. 5. Shei RJ, et al. Omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids in the optimization of physical performance. Mil Med. 2014 Nov; 179( 11 Suppl ): 144 -5 6. 6. Mazereeuw G, et al. Effects of o-3 fatty acids on cognitive performance: a meta-analysis. Neurobiol Aging. 2012 Jul; 33( 7 ): 1482. e17-29. 7. Cederholm T, et al. o-3 fatty acids in the prevention of cognitive decline in humans. Adv Nutr. 2013 Nov 6; 4( 6 ): 672 -6. 8. Sarris J, et al. Omega-3 for bipolar disorder: meta-analyses of use in mania and bipolar depression. J Clin Psychiatry. 2012 Jan; 73( 1 ): 81 -6. 9. Grosso G, et al. Omega-3 fatty acids and depression: scientific evidence and biological mechanisms. Oxid Med Cell Longev. 2014; 2014:313570. 10. Sublette ME, et al. Meta-analysis of the effects of eicosapentaenoic acid( EPA) in clinical trials in depression. J Clin Psychiatry. 2011 Dec; 72( 12 ): 1577 -8 4. 11. Kiecolt-Glaser JK, et al. Omega-3 supplementation lowers rednes and anxiety in medical students: a randomized controlled trial. Brain Behav Immun. 2011 Nov; 25 (8 ): 1725 -3 4. 12. Wei MY, et al. Effect of eicosapentaenoic acid versus docosahexaenoic acid on serum lipids: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Curr Atheroscler Rep. 2011 Dec; 13( 6 ): 474 -8 3. 13. Annuzzi G, et al. A controlled survey on the effects of n-3 fatty acids on lipid and glucose metabolism in non-insulin-dependent diabetic patients. Atherosclerosis. 1991 Mar; 87( 1 ): 65 -7 3. 14. Boberg M, et al. Supplementation with n-3 fatty acids reduces triglycerides but increases PAI-1 in non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus. Eur J Clin Invest. 1992 Oct; 22( 10 ): 645 -5 0. 15. Davidson MH, et al. Efficacy and tolerability of adding prescription omega-3 fatty acids 4 g/ d to simvastatin 40 mg/ d in hypertriglyceridemic patients: an 8-week, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study. Clin Ther. 2007 Jul; 29( 7 ): 1354 -6 7. 16. Axelrod L, et al. Effects of a small quantity of omega-3 fatty acids on cardiovascular risk factors in NIDDM. A randomized, prospective, double-blind, controlled survey. Diabetes Care. 1994 Jan; 17( 1 ): 37 -4 4. 17. Simao AN, et al. Blood pressure decrease with ingestion of a soya product( kinako) or fish petroleum in women with the metabolic disorder: role of adiponectin and nitric oxide. Br J Nutr. 2012 Oct 28; 108 (8 ): 1435 -4 2. 18. Russo GL. Dietary n-6 and n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids: from biochemistry to clinical implications in cardiovascular prevention. Biochem Pharmacol. 2009 Mar 15; 77( 6 ): 937 -4 6. 19. Ramel A, et al. Moderate consumption of fatty fish reduces diastolic blood pressure in overweight and obese European young adults during energy restriction. Nutrition. 2010 Feb; 26( 2 ): 168 -7 4. 20. Campbell F, et al. A systematic review of fish-oil supplements for the prevention and treatment of hypertension. Eur J Prev Cardiol. 2013 Feb; 20( 1 ): 107 -2 0. 21. Simopoulos AP. The highlighted the importance of the ratio of omega-6/ omega-3 essential fatty acids. Biomed Pharmacother. 2002 Oct; 56 (8 ): 365 -7 9. 22. Ciubotaru I, et al. Dietary fish oil lessens C-reactive protein, interleukin-6, and triacylglycerol to HDL-cholesterol ratio in postmenopausal women on HRT. J Nutr Biochem. 2003 Sep; 14( 9 ): 513 -2 1. 23. Shang T, et al. Protective effects of various ratios of DHA/ EPA supplementation on high-fat diet-induced liver injury in mouse. Lipids Health Dis. 2017 Mar 29; 16( 1 ): 65. 24. Bhale SD, et al. Oregano and rosemary extracts inhibit oxidation of long-chain n-3 fatty acids in menhaden oil. J Food Sci. 2007 Nov; 72( 9 ): C504-8. 25. Softeland L, et al. Omega-3 and alpha-tocopherol offer more protection against contaminants in fiction feeds for Atlantic salmon( Salmo salar L .) than omega-6 and gamma tocopherol. Toxicol Rep. 2016 Jan 14; 3:211 -2 24. 26. Davis BC, et al. Achieving optimal essential fatty acid status in vegetarians: current knowledge and practical implications. Am J Clin Nutr. 2003 Sep; 78( 3 Suppl ): 640 S-6 46 S. 27. Gerster H. Can adults adequately convert alpha-linolenic acid( 18:3 n-3) to eicosapentaenoic acid( 20:5 n-3) and docosahexaenoic acid( 22:6 n-3 )? Int J Vitam Nutr Res. 1998; 68( 3 ): 159 -7 3. 28. Brouwer IA, et al. Dietary alpha-linolenic acid is associated with reduced hazard of fatal coronary heart disease, but increased prostate cancer risk: a meta-analysis. J Nutr. 2004 Apr; 134( 4 ): 919 -2 2. 29. Mohammadi V, et al. Does Alpha-lipoic Acid Supplementation Modulate Cardiovascular Risk Factors in Patients with Stroke? A Randomized, Double-blind Clinical Trial. Int J Prev Med. 2018 Apr 5; 9:34. 30. Cameron-Smith D, et al. Fishing for answers: is oxidation of fish petroleum supplements a problem? J Nutr Sci. 2015 Nov 23; 4: e36. 31. Jackowski SA, et al. Oxidation levels of North American over-the-counter n-3( omega-3) supplements and the influence of supplement formulation and delivery form on evaluating oxidative security. J Nutr Sci. 2015 Nov 4; 4: e30.

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